What is gout?

Gout can be a very painful form of arthritis that is caused by deposits of urate crystals in your joints (distinct from the calcium crystal deposits of pseudo gout). Attacks of gout normally come on very quickly. Certain things can make attacks more likely, such as drinking excess alcohol.

Urate crystals cause joint inflammation, which means the affected joint becomes painful, hot, swollen and red. Attacks typically affect the big toe, but can also affect ankles, knees, elbows, wrists and fingers.

When urate crystals collect outside the joint, they can sometimes be seen under the skin – these look like firm white lumps. These are not usually painful, but can sometimes cause the skin to break down.

If untreated, attacks of gout may get more frequent and may start to involve more joints in the body.

How is gout treated?

The two main goals of treating gout are: treating the symptoms of an acute attack, and on-going treatment to reduce the level of urate in the blood to prevent crystals from forming

Acute attacks are normally treated with either anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen, or colchicine – a drug which specifically reduces inflammation caused by crystal deposits. Steroids can also be helpful at reducing symptoms, either as an oral course or by injection of the steroid directly into the affected joint.

For on-going treatment to reduce urate in the bloodstream, allopurinol is most often used. Your doctor will usually measure the level of urate in the blood before starting allopurinol, then reassess the level after a period of treatment, and adjust the dose if necessary.

A healthy lifestyle can also help in the treatment of gout, such as losing weight if you are obese, eating a “low purine” diet (see link below for more information), avoiding excess alcohol and avoid dehydration.

Where can I find out more about gout?

Versus Arthritis

offers information about the condition, how it is diagnosed and treated, and living with the condition



UK Gout Society


is a registered charity that provides basic information to people living with gout, their families, friends and carers

Last updated: February 6, 2020